Bluetooth technology is a wireless communications technology that is simple, secure, low power, low cost and used for relatively short distances, typically up to 10 metres. It can be find in billions of devices ranging from mobile phones and computers to various embedded devices. Bluetooth is intended to replace the cables connecting devices, while maintaining high levels of security, and communications protocol primarily designed for low-power consumption. It was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. Unlike RS-232 standard, it can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.
Bluetooth sends and receives radio waves, using UHF radio waves in band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, exchanging data over short distances, and building wireless personal area networks (WPANs). Bluetooth protocol is a type of radio communication and networking protocol combined. The IEEE standardized Bluetooth as IEEE 802.15.1. Data rates vary. Currently, they are at 1-3 MBit per second.
When two Bluetooth enabled devices connect to each other, this is called pairing. Connections between Bluetooth supported devices allow these devices to communicate wirelessly through short-range, ad hoc computer network known as piconet. Each device (master Bluetooth device) in a piconet can also simultaneously communicate with up to seven other devices within that single piconet and each device can also belong to several piconets simultaneously. This means the ways in which you can connect your Bluetooth devices is almost limitless. The master Bluetooth device can switch roles, by agreement, and the slave can become the master. A fundamental strength of Bluetooth wireless technology is the ability to simultaneously handle data and voice transmissions. which provides users with a variety of innovative solutions such as hands-free headsets for voice calls, printing and fax capabilities, and synchronization for PCs and mobile phones.
To use Bluetooth wireless technology, a device must be able to interpret certain Bluetooth profiles, which are definitions of possible applications and specify general behaviours that Bluetooth-enabled devices use to communicate with other Bluetooth devices. These profiles include settings to parametrize and to control the communication from start. There are a wide range of Bluetooth profiles that describe many different types of applications or use cases for devices.
Bluetooth Smart (Bluetooth low energy, BLE) are extension of the original Bluetooth brand introduced in 2011. The Smart designations indicate compatibility of products using the low energy feature of the Bluetooth v4.0 specification. Purely and simply, BLE is a short range, ultra-low power consuming wireless technology.
The most commonly used radio is Class 2 and uses 2.5 mW of power. Bluetooth technology is designed to have very low power consumption. This is reinforced in the specification by allowing radios to be powered down when inactive. Bluetooth low energy technology, optimized for devices requiring maximum battery life instead of a high data transfer rate, consumes between 1/2 and 1/100 the power of classic Bluetooth technology. Bluetooth Smart product collects data and runs for months or years on a tiny/watch battery.
Devices such as mobile phones, Headsets , laptops, PCs, handheld computers , modems, printers, LAN access devices, Keyboards, Joysticks, digital cameras and video game consoles can connect to each other, and exchange information.